Architects Iktinos and Kallikrates

Date 447-432 BCE

Movement Greek | Classical

Medium Marble

Height 45′

Located at Akropolis, Athens


The Athenian Parthenon was the grandest temple on the Greek mainland at the time of its construction. Its architects introduced a number of mathematical innovations in the plans to create a stunning structure that has served as one of the major influences for many architectural movements to come. For example, the Parthenon’s proportional size of its entablature to its overall height has been reduced from that of earlier temples, allowing for its intercolumniation to increase while the columns themselves lose much of their entasis and bulk. A ratio of 2x+1:x was employed by the architects throughout to achieve harmony (for example, 8 facade columns to 17 side columns). This ratio breaks at parts, perhaps to correct for optical illusions—the columns lean inward and the stylobase bends upward, allowing the structure to appear straight at far distances.